Articles and more


Breakwater Institute for Occupational Stress and Trauma

Our psychology-led multidisciplinary clinic, providing specialized mental health services to those in high-stress vocations, including first responders, military members and veterans, and their families.

Clinical TMS Society

The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)

Brain Canada


The Clinical TMS Society Consensus Review and Treatment Recommendations for TMS Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder

·          A relatively recent review and set of treatment guidelines from the Clinical TMS society, an international body of TMS researchers and clinicians.

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Acute Treatment of Major Depressive Episodes: A Systematic Review With Network Meta-analysis

·          A fairly recent quantitative review of the entire RCT literature for rTMS for depression. It gives a sense for how extensively rTMS for depression has been researched.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation in anxiety and trauma-related disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

·          A recent meta-analysis of rTMS for several different anxiety disorders, including PTSD. Anxiety (and, more generally, hyperarousal) is among the more disabling and difficult-to-treat aspects of PTSD.

Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

·          The first published application of the intermittent theta burst (iTBS) protocol to PTSD. It is also one of the few studies that measured both quality of life and occupational/social functioning as outcome variables.

Articles and more

Brain stimulation clinic at “Breakwater Neuro” seeing great results in treating depression (CityNews)

Breakwater Institute YouTube Channel

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

Cost–Utility Analysis of Electroconvulsive Therapy and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression in Ontario (The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry)

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for TreatmentResistant Depression: An Economic Analysis (Health Quality Ontario)

What Is the Fit Between Mental Health, Mental Illness and Ontario’s Approach to Chronic Disease Prevention and Management? (Canadian Mental Health Association)

Newly opened clinic for treatment-resistant depression brings Nova Scotia to the forefront of accessible mental health care